God punctuates his plan with symbols and signs.  The covenant with Noah has its sign in the heavens:


And God said, This is the token [אוֹת / σημεῖον] of the covenant which I make between me and you and every living creature that is with you, for perpetual generations: I do set my bow in the cloud, and it shall be for a token of a covenant between me and the earth. (Genesis 9:12-13)


And the covenant with Abraham has its sign in human flesh:


This is my covenant, which ye shall keep, between me and you and thy seed after thee; Every man child among you shall be circumcised. And ye shall circumcise the flesh of your foreskin; and it shall be a token [אוֹת / σημεῖον] of the covenant betwixt me and you. (Genesis 17:10-11)


The covenant at Sinai has its token in time:


Wherefore the children of Israel shall keep the sabbath, to observe the sabbath throughout their generations, for a perpetual covenant. It is a sign [אוֹת / σημεῖον] between me and the children of Israel for ever: for in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, and on the seventh day he rested, and was refreshed. (Exodus 31:16-17)


And Jesus as well spoke of a sign.  He said that there wouldn’t be but one:


But he answered and said unto them, An evil and adulterous generation seeketh after a sign [σημεῖον]; and there shall no sign [σημεῖον] be given to it, but the sign [σημεῖον] of the prophet Jonas: For as Jonas was three days and three nights in the whale’s belly; so shall the Son of man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth. (Mat 12:39-40)


A wicked and adulterous generation seeketh after a sign [σημεῖον]; and there shall no sign [σημεῖον] be given unto it, but the sign [σημεῖον] of the prophet Jonas. And he left them, and departed. (Mat 16:4)


And when the people were gathered thick together, he began to say, This is an evil generation: they seek a sign [σημεῖον]; and there shall no sign [σημεῖον]be given it, but the sign [σημεῖον] of Jonas the prophet. For as Jonas was a sign [σημεῖον] unto the Ninevites, so shall also the Son of man be to this generation. (Luke 11:29-30)


The Dove

Why Jonah?  Why use him as the primary type of Jesus’ death and resurrection?  Jesus was not the only one to see in Jonah a special connection with the resurrection.  It’s there also in rabbinical lore, as in this midrash in Pirqe d’Rabbi Eliezer (פרקי דרבי אליעזר ג):


רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר Rabbi Simeon said,
מִכֹּחַ צַדֶּקֶת From the strength of a righteousness woman
הַמֵּתִים עָתִידִין לִחְיוֹת are the dead to live in the future.
מִנַּיִן אָנוּ לִמְּדִין Whence do we learn (this)?
מאֵלִיָּהוּ הַתִּשְׁבִּי From Elijah the Tishbite
שֶׁהָיָה הוֹלֵךְ מֵהַר אֶל הַר who walking from mountain to mountain
וּמִמְּעָרָה אֶל מְעָרָה and from cave to cave,
הָלַךְ לוֹ לְצָרְפַת walked on to Zarephath
וְקַבָּלָתוֹ אִשָּׁה אַלְמָנָה and a widow woman received him
בְּכָבוֹד גָּדוֹל with great honor.
אִמּוֹ שֶׁל יוֹנָה הָיְתָה She was the mother of Jonah,
וּמִפַּתָהּ וּמִשּׁמְנָהּ הָיוּ אוֹכְלִים and from her morsel and from her oil they were eating,
וְשׁוֹתִים הוּא וְהִיא וּבְנָהּ and were drinking he and she and her son,
שנא׳ (שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר) as it is said (1Kings 17:15),
וַתֹּאכַל הוּא וְהִיא. “And she did eat he and she.”


This is highly interesting.  When the rain stopped Elijah was first fed by the ravens (1Kings 17:6) and after that God instructed him (verse 9), “Arise, get thee to Zarephath, which belongeth to Zidon, and dwell there: behold, I have commanded a widow woman there to sustain thee.”  Zarephath (צָרְפַת) was a Phoenician town that lay between Tyre and Sidon.  It is called Sarepta (Σάρεπτα) in the Greek of the New Testament:


But I tell you of a truth, many widows were in Israel in the days of Elias, when the heaven was shut up three years and six months, when great famine was throughout all the land; But unto none of them was Elias sent, save unto Sarepta [Σάρεπτα], a city of Sidon, unto a woman that was a widow. (Luke 4:25-26)


The widow woman passes the test of faith—she fed Elijah first in the face of the famine.  Nevertheless her son died:


And it came to pass after these things, that the son of the woman, the mistress of the house, fell sick; and his sickness was so sore, that there was no breath left in him. And she said unto Elijah, What have I to do with thee, O thou man of God? art thou come unto me to call my sin to remembrance, and to slay my son? And he said unto her, Give me thy son. And he took him out of her bosom, and carried him up into a loft, where he abode, and laid him upon his own bed. And he cried unto the LORD, and said, O LORD my God, hast thou also brought evil upon the widow with whom I sojourn, by slaying her son? And he stretched himself upon the child three times, and cried unto the LORD, and said, O LORD my God, I pray thee, let this child’s soul come into him again. And the LORD heard the voice of Elijah; and the soul of the child came into him again, and he revived. And Elijah took the child, and brought him down out of the chamber into the house, and delivered him unto his mother: and Elijah said, See, thy son liveth. And the woman said to Elijah, Now by this I know that thou art a man of God, and that the word of the LORD in thy mouth is truth. (1Kings 17:17-24)


There is a passage in Tosefoth where it is acknowledged that Elijah was not a priest but rather of the tribe of Benjamin,[1] wherefore the sign of his office was a messiah son of Joseph.[2]  Thus there is the tradition in rabbinical Judaism that not only connects Jonah with the resurrection, it also sees him as typifying the messianic figure that will redeem the house of Israel.  Now notice the following account where Jesus encounters a woman on the coasts of Tyre and Sidon, which is precisely where Elijah was fed by the widow woman.  She is called a woman of Canaan in Matthew whereas in Mark 7:26 it says, “The woman was a Greek, a Syrophenician by nation”. It is here that Jesus asserts his calling which resembles what the rabbis call “messiah son of Joseph.”


Then Jesus went thence, and departed into the coasts of Tyre and Sidon. And, behold, a woman of Canaan came out of the same coasts, and cried unto him, saying, Have mercy on me, O Lord, thou son of David; my daughter is grievously vexed with a devil. But he answered her not a word. And his disciples came and besought him, saying, Send her away; for she crieth after us. But he answered and said, I am not sent but unto the lost sheep of the house of Israel. Then came she and worshipped him, saying, Lord, help me. But he answered and said, It is not meet to take the children’s bread, and to cast it to dogs. And she said, Truth, Lord: yet the dogs eat of the crumbs which fall from their masters’ table. Then Jesus answered and said unto her, O woman, great is thy faith: be it unto thee even as thou wilt. And her daughter was made whole from that very hour. (Matthew 15:21-28)


Jesus instructed his disciples similarly (Mat 10:6): “But go rather to the lost sheep of the house of Israel.”  And he said (John 6:44), “No man can come to me, except the Father which hath sent me draw him: and I will raise him up at the last day.”  Who will the Father draw?  God speaks prophetically in the New Covenant chapter (Jer 31:3[2]): “The LORD hath appeared of old unto me, saying, Yea, I have loved thee with an everlasting love: therefore with lovingkindness have I drawn thee.” The Septuagint uses the same verb (ἑλκύω ‘draw’) as in John 6:44.[3]


In Hebrew the word for ‘dove’ is יוֹנָה, same as the name of the prophet Jonah.  And so here let me spin my own midrash: First Elijah was fed by ravens (עֹרְבִים – 1Kings 17:4-6), and then he was fed by the widow woman whose child they say was Jonah (יוֹנָה) which means ‘dove’.  The dove (יוֹנָה) is a clean creature (Lev 1:14) whereas the raven (עֹרֵב) is not (Lev 11:15).  As the flood abated Noah first (Gen 8:7) “…sent forth a raven [עֹרֵב], which went forth to and fro, until the waters were dried up from off the earth.” Next he sent forth the dove (יוֹנָה):


Also he sent forth a dove from him, to see if the waters were abated from off the face of the ground; But the dove found no rest for the sole of her foot, and she returned unto him into the ark, for the waters were on the face of the whole earth: then he put forth his hand, and took her, and pulled her in unto him into the ark. And he stayed yet other seven days; and again he sent forth the dove out of the ark; And the dove came in to him in the evening; and, lo, in her mouth was an olive leaf pluckt off: so Noah knew that the waters were abated from off the earth. And he stayed yet other seven days; and sent forth the dove; which returned not again unto him any more. (Genesis 8:8-12)


Curiously the dove was sent forth to the land three times and the third time it stayed.  Likewise Israel has been sent forth to the land three times—first under Joshua, next under Ezra and Nehemiah, and lastly in our time under the Zionists.  The olive is symbolic of all Israel but has much of its branches broken off (Jer 11:16-17), just as the dove returned the second time with a leaf plucked off.


Note also the association of water and a dove in Matthew 3:16: “And Jesus, when he was baptized, went up straightway out of the water: and, lo, the heavens were opened unto him, and he saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove [Peshitta: ܝܰܘܢܳܐ, same as Hebrew יוֹנָה], and lighting upon him”.  How appropriate that the spirit of his office be symbolized by a dove—a Jonah—when the only sign of his messiahship would be the “sign of the prophet Jonah”.



The town of Zarephath is mentioned three times in the Tanakh, twice in the account in 1Kings 17 (in verses 9 and 10), and once in Obadiah 20: “And the captivity of this host of the children of Israel shall possess that of the Canaanites, even unto Zarephath; and the captivity of Jerusalem, which is in Sepharad, shall possess the cities of the south.”


Sepharad (סְפָרַד) is mentioned only here and its location is controversial.  It has traditionally been identified as Spain, as in the Peshitta (with ܐܰܣܦ݁ܰܢܺܝܰܐ ’aspaniya), and Jews of the Spanish exile are called Sephardim (סְפָרַדִּים).  The modern Hebrew word for France— צָרְפַת(Zarephath)—is based on this verse.  Rashi comments (Obadiah 20):[4]


לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל “To the children of Israel
אֲשֶׁר כְּנַעֲנִים עַד צָרְפַת. who are Canaanites unto Zarephath.”
גָּלוּת אֲשֶׁר הוּא מִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל The exile which is of the children of Israel
שֶׁגָּלוּ מֵעֲשֶׂרֶת הַשְּׁבָטִים which were exiled from the ten tribes
לְאֶרֶץ כְּנַעֲנִים עַד צָרְפַת׃ to a land of Canaanites unto Zarephath.
וְגָלוּת יְרוּשָׁלַיִם אֲשֶׁר בִּסְפָרַד. “And the exile of Jerusalem which is in Sepharad.”
שֶׁהֵם מִבְנֵי יְהוּדָה They who are from the children of Judah
אֲשֶׁר גָּלוּ לִסְפָרַד who are exiled to Sepharad,
הֵם יִרְשׁוּ אֵת עָרֵי הַנֶּגֶב they shall possess the cities of the south,
שֶׁבְּדָּרוֹמָה שֶׁל אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל which are in the south of the land of Israel,
וְאוֹמְרִי׳ הַפּוֹתְרִים and the interpreters say,
צָרְפַת הוּא הַמַּלְכוּת שֶׁקּוֹרִין פרנצ”א Zarephath is the kingdom which they call France.
בלע”ז[5] סְפָרַד Sepharad, in a language of a foreign people,
תִּרְגֵּם יוֹנָתָן אַסְפַּמְיָא׃ Jonathan renders “Spain”.[6]


And Radak weighs in as well:[7]


גָּלוּת הַחֵל הַזֶּה לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל “the exile of this army of the children of Israel”—
כְּלוֹמַר שֶׁהֵם בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל Meaning they who are the children of Israel
שֶׁהֵם נִפְזָרִים בְּגָלוּת׃ who were scattered in an exile.
אֲשֶׁר כְּנַעֲנִים. “which are Canaanites”.
כְּלוֹמַר אֲשֶׁר גָּלוּ Meaning they who went into exile
וְהֵם עִם כְּנַעֲנִים עַד צָרְפַת׃ and were with Canaanites unto Zarephath.
וְצָרְפַת הוּא שֶׁקּוֹרִי׳ פרנצ”א And it is Zarephath which they are calling France,
וְאֲרָצוֹת סְפָרַד שֶׁקּוֹרִי׳ ספני”א and the land of Sepharad which they are calling Spain.


Whether or not these identifications are valid, what is interesting here is that once again Zarephath is connected to the lost sheep of the house of Israel.


Ephraim Died

The house of Israel is typified as “Ephraim” (Ezek 37:16, 19), and Israel’s being cut off from the covenant and sent into exile is spoken of as Ephraim’s death ( Hos 13:1): “When Ephraim spake trembling, he exalted himself in Israel; but when he offended in Baal, he died.”  And therefore the redemption of the house of Israel can be spoken of as a resurrection from the dead:


Then he said unto me, Son of man, these bones are the whole house of Israel: behold, they say, Our bones are dried, and our hope is lost: we are cut off for our parts. Therefore prophesy and say unto them, Thus saith the Lord GOD; Behold, O my people, I will open your graves, and cause you to come up out of your graves, and bring you into the land of Israel. (Ezekiel 37:11-12)


The covenant is meant to impart eternal life, but, as it says,


These all died in faith, not having received the promises, but having seen them afar off, and were persuaded of them, and embraced them, and confessed that they were strangers and pilgrims on the earth. For they that say such things declare plainly that they seek a country. (Hebrews 11:13-14)


So maybe also eternal life is related to the land (earth/country), for is not the first commandment with promise, “Honour thy father and thy mother: that thy days may be long upon the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee”?  If your father is God and your mother is Jerusalem (Gal 4:26), how long will your life in the land be?


Paul asks (Rom 11:15), “For if the casting away of them be the reconciling of the world, what shall the receiving of them be, but life from the dead?”


Who is he talking about?  There is a clue in verse 25:


For I would not, brethren, that ye should be ignorant of this mystery, lest ye should be wise in your own conceits; that blindness in part is happened to Israel, until the fulness of the Gentiles be come in. And so all Israel shall be saved: as it is written [Isaiah 59:20-21], There shall come out of Sion the Deliverer, and shall turn away ungodliness from Jacob: For this is my covenant unto them, when I shall take away their sins. (Romans 11:25-27)


This is Ephraim’s birthright (Gen 48:19): “And his father refused, and said, I know it, my son, I know it: he also shall become a people, and he also shall be great: but truly his younger brother shall be greater than he,


וְזַרְעוֹ יִהְיֶה מְלֹא־הַגּוֹיִם

and his seed shall become [the fullness of the Gentiles].”


There is a rabbinical teaching that Ephraim’s blessing was—in a sense—a curse, as for example in Siftei Hakhamim:[8]


צ  דְּקָשֶׁה לְרַשִּׁ”י 90 The difficulty for Rashi is  
דִּוְזַרְעוֹ יִהְיֶה מְלֹא־הַגּוֹיִם that “and his seed shall be the fullness of the nations”
מַשְׁמַע שֶׁזַּרְעוֹ יִהְיוּ נְפוֹצִים means that his seed will be disseminated  
בְּכָל הָעוֹלָם in all the world  
וְאַדְּרַבָּה זֶה קְלָלָה הוּא. and as a matter of fact this is a curse.  


This is precisely what happened historically, as Jeremiah warns the temple authorities in his day (Jer 7:15): “And I will cast you out of my sight, as I have cast out all your brethren, even the whole seed of Ephraim.”  They are consigned to be wanderers among the nations (Hosea 9:17): “My God will cast them away, because they did not hearken unto him: and they shall be wanderers among the nations.”


There is an interesting hapax legomenon in Genesis 48:16—“The Angel which redeemed me from all evil, bless the lads; and let my name be named on them, and the name of my fathers Abraham and Isaac; and let them grow [וְיִדְגּוּ] into a multitude in the midst of the earth.”  Targum Onkelos paraphrases with ‘like fish of the sea’:[9]


מַלְאֲכָא דִּפְרַק יָתִי מִכָּל בִּישָׁא The angel who redeemed me from all evil,
יְבָרֵיךְ יָת עוּלֵימַיָּא may he bless the lads,
וְיִתְקְרֵי בְּהוֹן שְׁמִי and may my name be called in them,
וְשׁוֹם אֲבָהָתַי אַבְרָהָם וְיִצְחָק and the name of my fathers Abraham and Isaac,
וּכְנוּנֵי יַמָּא יִסְגּוֹן and may they increase like the fish of the sea
בְּגוֹ בְּנֵי אֲנָשָׁא עַל אַרְעָא. among the sons of men upon the earth.


Rashi references the Midrash (Bereshith Rabbah 97:3) and the Talmud (Berakhoth 20a):


וְיִדְגּוּ. כַּדָּגִים הַלָּלוּ “May they be like fish”. Like those fish
שֶׁפָּרִים וְרָבִים which are fruitful and multiplying
וְאֵין עַיִן הָרַע שׁוֹלֶטֶת בָּהֶם and on which the evil eye has no affect.


The idea is that the lost sheep of the house of Israel would be hidden from the world, and unlike their fellows of the house of Judah, in exile they would be hidden from the evil eye. And unlike the house of Judah, the house of Israel would intermarry extensively with the Gentiles.  God says (Hosea 7:8), “Ephraim, he hath mixed himself [יִתְבּוֹלָל] among the people; Ephraim is a cake not turned.”  The same word [בָּלַל] is used here as in the account of the tower of Babel:[10]


Go to, let us go down, and there confound [וְנָבְלָה – συγχέωμεν] their language, that they may not understand one another’s speech. So the LORD scattered them abroad from thence upon the face of all the earth: and they left off to build the city. Therefore is the name of it called Babel [בָּבֶל – Σύγχυσις]; because the LORD did there confound [בָּלַל – συνέχεεν] the language of all the earth: and from thence did the LORD scatter them abroad upon the face of all the earth. (Genesis 11:7-9)


And here the Septuagint has συγχέω, which also occurs tellingly in the account of the tongues miracle 50 days from the resurrection:


And they were all filled with the Holy Ghost, and began to speak with other tongues, as the Spirit gave them utterance. And there were dwelling at Jerusalem Jews, devout men, out of every nation under heaven. Now when this was noised abroad, the multitude came together, and were confounded [συνεχύθη], because that every man heard them speak in his own language. (Acts 2:4-6)
Parallel Millennia
Light Waters Land
1 2 3
4 5 6


Just as in the 2nd millennium God scattered the sons of Noah by dividing their speech, so also in the parallel 5th millennium God reached out to representatives of the nations by giving them the ability to hear the Gospel in their own speech.


Fishers of Men

Therefore, behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that it shall no more be said, The LORD liveth, that brought up the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt; But, The LORD liveth, that brought up the children of Israel from the land of the north, and from all the lands whither he had driven them: and I will bring them again into their land that I gave unto their fathers. Behold, I will send for many fishers, saith the LORD, and they shall fish them; and after will I send for many hunters, and they shall hunt them from every mountain, and from every hill, and out of the holes of the rocks. (Jeremiah 16:14-16)


Let us say that even as on the 5th day God says (Gen 1:20), “Let the waters bring forth…,” so in the 5th millennium he says, “Behold, I will send for many fishers,” and even as on the 6th day he says (Gen 1:24), “Let the earth bring forth…,” so also in the 6th millennium he says, “and after will I send for many hunters…”


And thus in preparation for the 5th millennium Jesus said (Mat 4:19), “Follow me, and I will make you fishers of men.”


The Gospel would go out to the world, but not yet to bring the redemption of all Israel—which is described as “a new covenant” in Jeremiah 31, the blood of which had already been shed and a mediator chosen (Heb 12:24): “And to Jesus the mediator of the new covenant, and to the blood of sprinkling…” (compare Ex 24:6).  The symbol of this was the wine of his last supper (Mat 26:28; Mark 14:24; Luke 22:10; 1Cor 11:25).


Rather the Gospel goes out as a witness (Mat 24:14): “And this gospel of the kingdom shall be preached in all the world for a witness unto all nations; and then shall the end come.”  Not even all Israel will be reached until the end (Mat 10:23): “Ye shall not have gone over the cities of Israel, till the Son of man be come.”  And at the end it seems some supernatural power or high placed messenger is involved in preaching this Gospel:


And I saw another angel fly in the midst of heaven, having the everlasting gospel to preach unto them that dwell on the earth, and to every nation, and kindred, and tongue, and people, Saying with a loud voice, Fear God, and give glory to him; for the hour of his judgment is come: and worship him that made heaven, and earth, and the sea, and the fountains of waters. (Revelation 14:6-7)


The Gospel of the Kingdom brings the glad tidings of God’s future reign over all nations


Contiguous Millennia

Tohu Torah Messiah
1 3 5
2 4 6

from Jerusalem.  It is also the wondrous news that if in the meantime your Father is God and your mother is Jerusalem then you will have a place in the first resurrection (Rev 20:1-5).  During “the fullness of the Gentiles” (Gen 48:19; Rom 11:25) the kingdom of God is preached (Luke 16:16), after that comes the redemption and a new covenant (Jer 31).  The fullness of the Gentiles occurs during the “two millennia of messiah”[11] at a time when the covenant is in shatters (Luke 21:24): “And they shall fall by the edge of the sword, and shall be led away captive into all nations: and Jerusalem shall be trodden down of the Gentiles, until the times of the Gentiles be fulfilled.”  But as Paul said (Rom 11:12), “Now if the fall of them be the riches of the world, and the diminishing of them the riches of the Gentiles; how much more their fulness?”


One of Jesus’ last encounters with his disciples was when he said (John 21:6), “Cast the net on the right side of the ship, and ye shall find.”  E. A. Bullinger comments on the number of fish caught:[12] “This is a number which has taxed the ingenuity of some of the greatest of Bible students, and that from the earliest times. All have felt there must be something deeply significant and mysterious in this number, from the solemn way in which it is introduced in John 21:11,—‘Simon Peter went up and drew the net to land full of great fishes, one hundred and fifty and three.’”  Bullinger relates this number to the gematria of בְּנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים ‘the sons of God’:


ם   י   ה   ל   א   ה   י   נ   ב    
40 + 10 + 5 + 30 + 1 + 5 + 10 + 50 + 2 = 153


The Sign of His Coming

Jesus offered only one sign of his triumph—and that was the sign of the prophet Jonah.  His disciples asked him in regard to the sign of his return (Mat 24:3): “And as he sat upon the mount of Olives, the disciples came unto him privately, saying, Tell us, when shall these things be? and what shall be the sign [σημεῖον] of thy coming, and of the end of the world [τοῦ αἰῶνος ‘of the age’]?”


Before describing his coming he said (Mat 24:30), “And then shall appear the sign [σημεῖον] of the Son of man in heaven…” How so?  Well, Jesus entered Jerusalem at Bethphage (Βηθφαγή), which in Aramaic isܒܝܬ‌ܦܓ̈ܐ  / בֵּית פַּגָּה ‘house of unripe figs’ (Mat 21:1; Mark 11:1; Luke 19:29), and he cursed a fig tree (Mar 11:13), “…for the time of figs was not yet.”  Why, the disciples asked?  His answer (Mat 21:21): “If ye have faith, and doubt not, ye shall not only do this which is done to the fig tree, but also if ye shall say unto this mountain, Be thou removed, and be thou cast into the sea; it shall be done.”  The fig tree symbolizes Jerusalem (Jer 24:1-9) and the sea the nations of the diaspora (Rev 17:15), and in Matthew 23 Jesus delivered a strong Jeremiad against Jerusalem and in chapter 24 we have his Olivet prophecy of the coming exile. But at the end of it all he holds out hope—the fig tree will come back to life—and that I suggest is the sign of his coming.


Now learn a parable of the fig tree; When his branch is yet tender, and putteth forth leaves, ye know that summer is nigh: So likewise ye, when ye shall see all these things, know that it is near, even at the doors. Verily I say unto you, This generation shall not pass, till all these things be fulfilled. (Matthew 24:32-34)


[1] If this is true it was true as well for Paul who was of the tribe of Benjamin (Rom 11:11; Phil 3:5) as also one sent to the nations (Rom 11:13; 1Tim 2:7; 2Tim 1:11).


[2] Tosefot (Bava Metzia 114b):

אָמַר לָהֶם He said to them,
אוֹתוֹ תִּינוֹק מָשִׁיחַ בֶּן יוֹסֵף הָיָה His sign is he was a baby messiah son of Joseph.


[3] Jeremiah 31:3[2]— עַל־כֵּן מְשַׁכְתִּיךְ is expressed in the Septuagint:

  διὰ τοῦτο εἵλκυσά σε therefore have I drawn thee

For which compare John 6:44—

οὐδεὶς δύναται ἐλθεῖν πρός με No man can come to me,
ἐὰν μὴ ὁ πατὴρ ὁ πέμψας με except the Father which hath sent me
ἑλκύσῃ αὐτόν, draw him:
κἀγὼ ἀναστήσω αὐτὸν ἐν τῇ ἐσχάτῃ ἡμέρᾳ. and I will raise him up at the last day.


[4] Rashi (רש”י), acronym for Rabbi Shlomo Itzhaki (רַבִּי שְׁלֹמֹה בֶּן יִצְחָקִי‎ – 1040 –1105).


[5] בלע”ז = בִּלְשׁוֹן עַם זָר ‘in a language of a foreign people’.


[6] Obadian 20 in Targum Jonathan:

וְגָלוּת עַמָא הָדֵין דִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל And the exile of these people of the children of Israel
דִבְאַרְעָא כְנַעֲנָאֵי עַד צָרְפַת of the land of the Canaanites unto Zarephath;
וְגָלוּת יְרוּשָׁלֵם דִבְאַסְפַּמְיָא and the exile of Jerusalem which is in Spain
יַחְסְנוּן יַת קִרְוֵי אַרְעָא דְדָרוֹמָא׃ shall strengthen the cities [in] the land of the south.


[7] Radak (רד”ק), acronym for Rabbi David Kimhi (רַבִּי דָּוִד קִמְחִי ‎ – 1160–1235).

[8] שִׂפְתֵי חֲכָמִים, a commentary on Rashi’s commentary by Shabbethai ben Joseph Bass (שַׁבְּתַי בֶּן יוֹסֵף בָּס – 1641-1718), born at Kalisz in central Poland.


[9] Thus the traditional prayer before eating fish:

יְהִי רָצוֹן מִלְּפָנֶיךָ May it be the will of your Presence,
ה’ אֱלֹהֵינוּ וֵאלֹהֵי אֲבוֹתֵינוּ Hashem our God and God of our fathers,
שֶׁנִּפְרֶי וְנִרְבֶּה כְּדָגִים that we be fruitful and multiply like fish.

For more detail see page 167 in Rivka Ulmer (1994), The evil eye in the Bible and in rabbinic literature, Hoboken, New Jersey: KTAV Publishing house.

[10] Radak on Hosea 7:8—

אֶפְרַיִם בָּעַמִּים הוּא יִתְבּוֹלָל. כְּמוֹ “Ephraim, he hath mixed himself among the people”. Just as (Gen 11:9)
כִּי שָׁם בָּלַל ה’ שְׂפַת כָּל הָאָרֶץ “because Hashem did there confound the language of all the earth,”
עִנְיָן בִּלְבּוּל וְעִרְבּוּב the matter here is confusion and mixing.
כְּלוֹמַר הוּא מְעוּרְבָּב בעכו” That is to say he [Ephraim] is mixing with idolators¹
שֶׁהָאֵל ית’ הִבְדִּילָם מֵהֶם which God (let him be blessed²) had separated from them.
וְהֵם הִתְעָרְבוּ בָּהֶם and they became involved with them
וְעָשׂוּ כְּמַעֲשֵׂיהֶם. and they did after their works.

¹ עכו” = עוֹבְדֵי כּוֹכָבִים וּמַזָּלוֹת ‘worshippers of the stars and planets’. ² ית’ = יִתְבָּרֵךְ ‘let him be blessed’.


[11] Babylonian Talmud (Sanhedrin 97a-bAbodah Zarah 9a):

תָּנָא דְּבֵי אֵלִיָּהוּ The words of Elijah were studied:
שֵׁשֶׁת אֲלפִים שָׁנָה הֲוֵי עָלְמָא The world endures six thousand years—
שְׁנֵי אֲלָפִים תּוֹהוּ tohu two thousand,
שְׁנֵי אֲלָפִים תּוֹרָה Torah two thousand,
שְׁנֵי אֲלָפִים יְמוֹת הַמָּשִׁיחַ the days of the messiah two thousand.


[12] See E. A. Bullinger (1921), Number in Scripture: Its Supernatural Design and Spiritual Significance.  Fourth Edition, Revised.  London: Eyre & Spottiswoode (Bible Warehouse) Ltd.  Available on line at http://philologos.org/__eb-nis/.